|Characterize NOAAs in electronics, cosmetics, food, medical devices, and drugs.|
1. US FDA 2012, Guidance for Industry – Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products.
2. EU/JRC July 2012, Requirements on Measurements for the Implementation of the European Commission Definition of the Term “Nanomaterials”.
3. ISO/TR13014: 2012, Nanotechnologies -- Guidance on physico-chemical characterization of engineered nanoscale materials for toxicologic assessment.
4. ICCR 2012, Characterization of Nanomaterials II - Insolubility, Biopersistence and Size Measurement in Complex Media.
K-kit Application: Abrasives in CMP Slurry
| Primary and secondary particles in undiluted slurry |
|Dried on copper grid||Frozen in Cryo-TEM grid|
In liquid phase in K-kit
* Scale bar is 50 nm
K-kit Application: Liquid-TEM Observation in Nanopharmaceuticals
Application particle concentration for K-kit: 1011~1014 particles/ml
AuroVist® solution was directly loaded and sealed in a K-kit in liquid form.
|Oil emulsion in water was loaded and sealed in a K-kit in liquid form.|
As shown in the table, most of the nano-drugs currently in the market all meet the applicable (countable) range of particle concentration for K-kit. So, apprently, K-kit can be very suitable for the CRO or CMC application in Nanopharmaceuticals.
In some cases, the particles cannot be well identified in TEM directly by using K-kit, which such like liposomes or AAV due to low contrast or too small sizes. Currently, we are developing the negative staining protocol of K-kits, with the first example by smaller liposomes, for improving the TEM observation in low-contrast nano-drugs. We will keep the progress updated at any time on this website.
| EM-based Imaging Analysis with K-kit for CRO Application |
| Possible CRO Application || |
K-kit Application: Quantum Dots in Solution
Quantum dots will enable a market for devices and components worth over $11bn by 2026.
QD: Quantum dots
BLU: Backlight Unit
LCM: Liquid Crystal Module
QDEF: Quantum-dot Enhancement Film
|QDs dried on copper grid||Wet mode of K-kit||Thin layer mode of K-kit|
| Size and Size Distribution of QDs in Chloroform (Thin Layer Mode of K-kit) |
K-kit Application: In-situ Dynamic Observation
The dynamic changes of reaction processes in liquid can be observed and studied by K-kit.
| Dynamic observation of polystyrene beads in PBS buffer (sodium ion) |
|The reduction process of the sodium ions, which induced from the TEM electron energy, in PBS buffer around a polystyrene bead could be observed with prolonged observation time.|
Gold metal growth in water with and without polystyrene beads
| The metal growth of Au ions in water could be observed dynamically at the same time in the areas far away and nearby a polystyrene bead. (As shown in the image, there’s a polystyrene bead at the center, with a lot of relatively small Au particles surrounded) |